The waste management methods vary according to the location where the waste is being collected. The waste collected from a residential area very much varies from the waste collected from an industrial area. Waste from a residential area is usually handled by the local self-government. But things are different for commercial or industrial waste. It is the responsibility of the creator of that waste to handle the commercial or industrial waste.
There are so many things we need to take into consideration while discussing waste management. They are the disposal methods, reprocessing and recycling methods, landfilling, avoidance and reduction methods, and transportation of waste.
The two main methods of disposing of waste materials are landfilling and incineration. There are a lot of advantages and disadvantages to both methods.
A low-lying open area out of the city, where the collected waste is dumped is called landfilling. Landfill involves the burning of the waste materials also, to get rid of it. If this method is done properly it is inexpensive and hygienic. Some countries do not do landfilling and burning methods properly and this causes other issues such as wind- litter caught fire during wind, vermin get attracted off, and the liquid leachate being produced (the liquid that drains from a landfill).
Another issue that arises from landfills is the emission of gas (usually methane and carbon dioxide) when the waste breaks down over time.
Incineration involves the combustion of waste materials. In this method, the waste material is heated to very high temperatures and is converted to materials such as heat, gas, steam, and ash. Incineration can be done on a small scale by individual people, such as in a fire, and also done on a much larger scale by an industry. This method of waste management is considered beneficial for materials such as medical waste, and it can be used to generate energy. However, it can be a controversial method of waste disposal because of the potential emission of gaseous pollutants.
1.Recycling means creating useful materials from waste. By recreating a waste material into a useful thing, the amount of waste that goes to the ecosystem can be reduced. Various methods of recycling are there such as physical reprocessing, biological reprocessing, and energy recovery.
2.The most common method among them of recycling waste material is physical reprocessing. In this method, waste materials are modified into some beautiful useful items. Nowadays it's very popular among women that empty beverages bottles are painted, and are used for interior decoration.
3.Plants, food scraps, dried leaves, and paper products can be decomposed into organic matter called compost. This is very good for plant growth so it can be used for landscaping or for agricultural uses. Each and every house can convert their food and other wastes items to compost with minimum equipment. Usually, this method is done by putting the waste materials in a closed container and keeping it aside until they turn dark and rich in color compost.
4.The final method of recycling is recovery. This method harnesses, directly and indirectly, the combustion fuel and other types of fuel produced from waste. These types of fuel can be produced by thermal treatment of the waste and used for such things as cooking, heating, or energy generation.
5.One another method of recycling is generating energy from waste. This method makes use of directly and indirectly the combustion fuel and other types of fuel produced from waste. This fuel can be produced by the thermal treatment of the waste and can be used for things such as cooking, heating, or energy generation. Biogas can be generated from animal dung and is also used for cooking.
The avoidance and reduction method is a very important part of waste management. The reuse of second-hand products, repairing broken items and using them again, and designing products that are reusable, etc. helps to reduce the amount of waste going to our ecosystem.